The signs and treatments of High Blood Pressure

The signs and treatments of High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure

Blood pressure is the amount of force that blood exerts on your artery walls. Your artery pressure is higher than it should be if you have high blood pressure (HBP), commonly referred to as hypertension. Hypertension can grow over many years without any symptoms or indicators, but at this time, your general health is being harmed. Consequently, this illness has earned the moniker “silent killer.” There are two types of hypertension: primary, which has no known cause, and secondary, which has an underlying illness as its cause.

Your heart and blood arteries have to work harder when you have hypertension. Your artery walls become damaged as a result of this workload over time. LDL (bad) cholesterol then starts to build plaque along these damaged walls. Atherosclerosis is a medical condition caused by plaque buildup. The insides of the arteries become narrower as plaque builds up, which raises blood pressure and starts a vicious cycle that will harm your heart and other parts of your body.

Modifications in Lifestyle

A crucial initial step in the treatment of high blood pressure is changing one’s lifestyle. Some people find that controlling their high blood pressure only requires cutting back on alcohol and sodium, keeping a healthy weight, doing regular cardiovascular activity, and quitting smoking. For instance, the majority of professional groups recommend consuming no more than 2.3 grams (2300 mg) of sodium daily, which is equivalent to 6 grams or less of table salt. Such alterations in lifestyle can reduce blood pressure just as well as medication therapy.

To decrease their blood pressure, many people, nevertheless, also need to take one or more drugs. Depending on your unique risk factors, other medical conditions, and blood pressure readings, your doctor will work with you to determine whether or not you should begin taking medication. An overview of the many medication classes that may be initially prescribed is provided below.

How can I determine whether my blood pressure is elevated?

Getting your blood pressure checked is the only method to determine if it is very high. You can achieve this even if you feel well by making an appointment for an annual physical examination with a medical practitioner. You won’t experience any illness if your blood pressure is raised. These tests are so crucial and could even save lives. If your blood pressure is greater than normal, your doctor may prescribe medication in addition to lifestyle adjustments.

High blood pressure symptoms

The majority of high blood pressure sufferers show no symptoms at all. But after blood pressure hits a particular point, the following symptoms appear:

  • blurry or dual vision
  • dizziness or fainting
  • Exhaustion Headache
  • palpitations in the heart
  • nosebleeds
  • Breathlessness
  • vomiting and/or nausea

Anybody who suffers from these symptoms should make an appointment to visit their doctor promptly.

Treatment

Modifying one’s lifestyle can help reduce high blood pressure. Among them are:

Following a nutritious, low-sodium diet, cutting weight, exercising, and giving up smoke.

Your physician might prescribe one or more medications if you have high blood pressure. Depending on the other medical issues you have, your suggested blood pressure target may change.

Less than 130/80 is the target blood pressure if you have:

  • cardiovascular illness (stroke or heart disease)
  • diabetes, or elevated blood sugar
  • persistent renal illness
  • Elevated risk of heart problems.
  • For most people, the ideal blood pressure is less than 140/90.

Many commonly used blood pressure drugs include ACE inhibitors, such as Lisinopril and enalapril, which relax blood vessels and prevent kidney damage.

Angiotensin-2 receptor blockers, or ARBs, widen blood vessels and protect the kidneys. Examples of ARBs are telmisartan and losartan.

Examples of calcium channel blockers that relax blood vessels are amlodipine and felodipine.

Diuretics, such as chlorthalidone and hydrochlorothiazide, reduce blood pressure by flushing out excess water from the body.

Drugs

A lot of people have a period of trial and error when taking blood pressure medication. It can take your doctor trying a variety of drugs until they find one that works for you or a combination that does.

The following are a few drugs that are used to treat hypertension:

Beta-blockers: These medications cause your heart to beat more slowly and weakly. As a result, your blood pressure will drop because less blood is pumped through your arteries with each heartbeat. Additionally, it inhibits some hormones that can cause your blood pressure to rise.

Diuretics: Excess fluid and high salt levels in the body can raise blood pressure. Diuretics, sometimes referred to as water tablets, assist your kidneys in eliminating extra sodium from your body. Extra fluid in your bloodstream passes into your urine as the sodium leaves, lowering blood pressure.

ACE inhibitors: Angiotensin is a substance that narrows and tightens artery walls and blood vessels. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors stop the body from making excessive amounts of this substance. In addition to lowering blood pressure, this promotes blood vessel relaxation.

ARBs, or angiotensin II receptor blockers: ARBs stop angiotensin from attaching themselves to receptors, while ACE inhibitors try to stop angiotensin from being made. The substance is required for the constriction of blood vessels. The relaxing of blood arteries causes a drop in blood pressure.

Calcium channel blockers: These drugs prevent a portion of calcium from reaching your heart’s cardiac muscles. Lower blood pressure and softer heartbeats result from this. Additionally, these drugs relax the blood arteries, which lowers blood pressure even more.

Alpha-2 agonists: These drugs alter the nerve signals responsible for the constriction of blood vessels. This lowers blood pressure by assisting in the relaxation of blood vessels.

Which factors put one at risk for high blood pressure?

The following are risk factors that increase your chance of having high blood pressure:

  • Having biological relatives that suffer from diabetes, high blood pressure, or cardiovascular disease.
  • Being older than 55.
  • Being African American.
  • Possesses a few medical disorders, such as thyroid illness, obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome, or chronic renal disease.
  • Being obese or overweight.
  • Not working out enough.
  • Eating a lot of sodium-rich food.
  • Either utilizing tobacco goods or smoking.
  • Overindulging in alcohol.

Conclusions

Hypertension, another name for high blood pressure, can cause major side effects like stroke, heart disease, renal disease, and vision issues. Most high blood pressure sufferers don’t show any symptoms until their condition gets bad. Get your blood pressure checked regularly rather than waiting for signs to warn you. You ought to get knowledgeable about taking your blood pressure at home. If your blood pressure is higher than 180/120 and you have symptoms like headaches or nosebleeds, you may be experiencing a hypertensive crisis. It’s an urgent medical situation. After five minutes, check your blood pressure again, and call 911 if it’s still very high.

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